Anuga constricta Guenée, 1852, Hist. nat. Insectes,
Spec. gen. Lepid. 6: 308.
Caecila complexa Walker, 1858, List Specimens lepid. Insects
Colln. Br. Mus. 15: 1825.
Spersara glaucopoides Walker,
 1864, J. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool 7: 175.
Cremnodes macrocera Snellen,
1880, Tijdschr. Ent. 23: 90.
Diagnosis. This species is smaller than most other Anuga, the narrow, dark
grey forewings distinguishing it from them, especially canescens; there
are sometimes lighter grey areas around the stigmata and submarginally. On the
hindwings there are two subtornal rows of white spots, the outermost grading
into a pale bar at the tornus. In the male genitalia the aedeagus vesica is
distinguished by two bands of coarse scobination.
Geographical range. Oriental tropics to Sundaland, Philippines and
Habitat preference. During the Mulu survey the species was taken
infrequently at lowland and lower montane sites on the transects of both G. Mulu
and G. Api. In Brunei the majority of records have been from lowland forest but
one specimen was taken in upper montane forest on Bukit Pagon.
Biology. Information on the early stages was found in Semper (1896-1902) and Bell
(MS). In the Philippines the larva is pale green, broadest at the thorax,
tapering smoothly to the abdomen; there is a narrow, dorsal grey band flanked by
the blackish one that expands laterally into triangles on some segments,
especially the first and fifth abdominal ones.
In India the shape is described as more spindle-shaped, broadest at the
second abdominal segment. The head is a dirty olive green, setae arising from
purplish spots. The body is a similar green, suffused purplish laterally and on
the first two thoracic segments, the setae also arising from purplish dots. The
segment margins are tinged yellow; the ventrum is pale green.
Bell stated that the larva lives on the upperside of old leaves, lying
along the petiole and midrib, walking along the latter to feed at the leaf tip.
It is well camouflaged and grips firmly. Pupation is in the soil in a solid
In India the host is Mangifera and in the Philippines, Semecarpus,
both in the Anacardiaceae. In Malaysia the species has been reared from Anisoptera
(Dipterocarpaceae) by Dr Tho Yow Pong.
to Contents page