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Oreta Walker

Type species: extensa Walker, Java.

Synonyms: Dryopteris Grote (type species rosea Walker, N. America); Hypsomadius Butler (type species insignis Butler, Japan); Holoreta Warren (type species jaspidea Warren, Queensland); Mimoreta Matsumura (type species horishana Matsumura, Taiwan); Oretella Strand (type species squamulata Strand, Taiwan); Psiloreta Warren (type species sanguinea Moore, India); Ramphoreta Bryk (type species eminens Bryk, Burma).

This is a diverse genus of robust, reddish and sometimes partially yellow species with falcate or, occasionally, bifalcate forewing. It was reviewed by Watson (1967), with a detailed descriptive section but no clear statement on definitive apomorphic features. There are features of the male abdomen that may be definitive: a broad eighth sternite produced laterally distally into processes that Watson termed apodemes; a well-developed saccus with the vinculum often expanded laterally; the uncus is broad, rarely, and usually then only slightly, bilobed; the valves are small, rounded, but with a large spur or other process from the sacculus. The gnathus is well developed.

The female bursa usually has a small scobinate signum. The ovipositor lobes are rounded, simple or slightly bilobed, surrounded by sclerites.

Sugi (1987) illustrated the larvae of three Japanese species, and Wang (1995) that of the type species. They are finely rugose, shaded brown to blackish brown, with a diffuse pattern of longitudinal lines and sinuous bands. The thorax has a dorsal tubercle and the anal process is very long, apically upcurved.

Host-plants recorded (above references; Yunus & Ho, 1980; Zhang, 1994) are Viburnum (Caprifoliaceae), Coffea, Mussaenda, Pavetta, Randia, Uncaria and Wendlandia (Rubiaceae).

The genus is most diverse in the Oriental Region but extends into the eastern Palaearctic, with one species in N. America. Representation in the Australasian tropics is weaker, extending as far east as the Solomons. Watson (1967) recognised six species-groups, only two of which (insignis and carnea Butler groups) extend into the Australasian tropics. There are eight species in Borneo, the first belonging to the extensa Walker group, the next four to the insignis group, carnea to the carnea group and the rest to the rubromarginata Swinhoe group.

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