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Monobolodes Warren

Type species: subfalcata Warren, Queensland.

Synonyms: Acachmena Turner, praeocc, replaced by Cathetus Fletcher (type species euthysticha Turner, Queensland) syn. n.

This and the next genus are marked by often pronounced sexual dimorphism. The male hindwing venation has the branches from M3 posteriorly reduced in number, with a hair pencil in a slight longitudinal pouch in the anal area, though the female has normal venation in the hindwing except there is only one anal vein. The hindwing has a somewhat irregular margin, with a distinctively stronger angle or tail at Rs and a strongly sinuous, sometimes almost bilobed, costal margin, particularly in males. The male antennae are lamellate.

The male abdomen has a small tuft of modified scales centrally near the distal margin of the seventh sternite, and sometimes there are similar structures on preceding sternites. In the genitalia the uncus is strong, curved, acute, sometimes with the base expanded. The valves are simple, rather ovate, but more membranous towards the base of the sacculus where there is often a hair-pencil. This hair-pencil, when strong, is associated with looping of the vinculum. The aedeagus vesica usually has a scobinate zone or a bundle of slender spines.

The female genitalia have the ductus elongate, slender, often with a very short basal colliculum, the bursa pyriform, with a large, robust, spiny signum shaped rather like a shuttle-cock set near the distal end of the bursa.

The genus is found throughout the Indo-Australian tropics from India to Australia and Samoa (M. lypera Tams comb. n.). The host-plant record is from the Rubiaceae, as in the next two genera. The adult resting posture of the three genera is also similar, with the forewing folded in a sinuous manner, held out laterally, the hindwing flat, resting close to the abdomen (see illustration in Chen, 1997).

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