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Dysphania Hübner

Type species: numana Cramer, Ambon (Moluccas).

Synonyms: Deileptena Guérin-Méneville (type species poeyii Guérin-Méneville, New Guinea); Euschema Hübner (type species militaris Linnaeus); Hazis Boisduval (type species militaris); Heleona Swainson (type species militaris); Pareuschema Thierry-Mieg (type species regalis Butler = glaucescens Walker); Polenivora Gistl (unnecessary replacement name for Hazis). The Sri Lankan endemic genus Cusuma Moore was indicated by Prout (1912a) to be very closely related to, possibly only a subgenus of, Dysphania.

The major definitive features of the genus have already been given in the tribal description. Yazaki (1989) has provided an illustrated guide to the commoner species in the genus and lists, but does not feature some of the rarer island endemics, e.g. from the Andaman Is. (see also Prashanth et al., in prep.).

Prashanth et al. (in prep.) have reviewed the host-plant data for the genus, both in the literature and unpublished. Most of these are from Carallia (Rhizophoraceae), but there are also records from Garcinia (Guttiferae; Bell, MS) and Bruguiera (Rhizophoraceae; Murphy (1990)). The record from Garcinia may have been a misidentification (see Corner, 1988: 611), so the genus may be restricted to the Rhizophoraceae. Corner stated that Carallia is more a genus of wet forests inland, whereas Bruguiera is a true mangrove: Carallia also extends east to the Solomons.

Oviposition is at random on the leaves of the host-plant. The larvae are usually yellow with black spots and some green and blue patches and bands. The pupa is yellowish brown with lateral rows of black spots on the abdomen.

The adults fly either by day or night, the day-fliers seldom seen after 10.30 a.m. (Barlow, in litt.) and the night-fliers coming to light. During the Mulu survey D. subrepleta Walker was encountered both 'mudpuddling' and visiting bonfire ash in the lowlands and also apparently hill-topping in upper montane forest on the ridge of G. Mulu.

Eight species occur in Borneo, including one from mangrove forest.

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