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Pachyodes Guenée

Type species: almaria Guenée = haemataria Herrich-Schäffer, India.

Synonyms: Archaeopseustes Warren (type species amplificata Walker, China)

The name Pachyodes is the oldest available for the Pseudoterpniti species previously referred to the genus Terpna Herrich-Schäffer, an incorrect subsequent spelling of Terpne Hübner, a junior objective synonym of Geometra Linnaeus (Fletcher, 1979). There are a number of other genus-group names available from the synonymy of this erroneous concept of Terpna, and it is therefore advisable to re-examine the definition of the whole group with reference to genitalic characters.

The following groups should be set apart from Pachyodes and the next genus, as they differ in significant genitalic features. In two the male antennae are
small, filiform, rather than being narrowly bipectinate: Calleremites Warren Gen. rev. (type species subornata Warren, Sikkim) and Psilotagma Warren Gen. rev. (type species decorata Warren, Bhutan). In both the uncus is strong, if slender, and the socii are relatively small, a far cry from the condition in the Bornean taxa in the old Terpna concept where the uncus has been replaced by fused socii as in Pingasa and Dindica: the facies of both is also distinctive. In Absala Swinhoe Gen. rev. (type species dorcada Swinhoe, N.E. Himalaya) and Dindicodes Prout Gen. rev. (type species crocina Butler, N. India) there is a punctate modification of the underside black markings as in Pachyodes but the male genitalia also indicate these are distinct genera, though both with the uncus vestigial. In Dindicodes, which has a Dindica-like appearance with yellow hindwings, the socii are strikingly reflexed and the valves are ornamented with costal and ventral sclerotised plates: the genus should probably include another six mainland Asian species with similar facies. In Absala the socii are largely separate, coremata are absent, the saccus is well developed, the valve is divided into a dorsal paddle-like portion more than twice the length of a ventral triangular one; the gnathus is broad, rather massive.

Pachista Prout Gen. rev. (type species superans Butler, Japan) is a monobasic genus, the type species being large, Pingasa-like, with a rather uniform grey facies. The uncal structure of the male genitalia is as in Pingasa, Pachyodes and the next two genera but the valve ornamentation is distinctive (see Inoue, 1961). The underside markings have the discal spots of both wings large. The genus is probably best kept distinct.

Pachyodes has upperside facies similar to that in the next genus in that the forewing postmedial is distinctly concave distad over the posterior two thirds, but the markings generally are more irregular, with a diagnostic longitudinal streak submarginally in the space between CuAl and CuA2 on the hindwings. On the underside the typical Pseudoterpniti black bands are broken up into a more punctate configuration.

In the male genitalia the uncal structure is as in Pingasa, the gnathus apically acute, rugose, entire, and the valves are diagnostically bilobed, with small coremata. The aedeagus is broad, distally coarsely scobinate. The third abdominal sternite has a pair of setal patches.

In the female the bursa is large, rather triangular, immaculate, set on a moderate but narrow ductus. The lamellae vaginales are broadly crinkled.

The genus as here recognised contains the type species, the species from Borneo below, and the following: P. subtrita Prout (Taiwan, Tonkin); P. ornataria Moore (N.E. Himalaya); P. leucomelanaria Poujade (W. China) and P. amplificata Walker (China).

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