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Paramaxates yazakii sp. n.  
Paramaxates vagata Walker sensu Holloway, 1976: 62.

Paramaxates yazakii

17-19mm. Externally this species resembles the Himalayan P. vagata Walker, and can only reliably be distinguished on characters of the male
abdomen. Like macrocerata the vagata group has a transverse flange interiorly on the centre of the costal part of the valve, but there is an additional oblique scobinate or sclerotised groove occurring along the saccular part to a point near the ventral margin distal to the flange. The aedeagus vesica bears numerous cornuti of approximately even size, never as massive as the two largest in macrocerata, and with the vesica more tubular. P. yazakii is distinguished by a small, tightly associated, reversed cluster of spines almost at the base of the vesica. These are more distal and more dispersed in Himalayan taxa (see below).

Holotype  NORD BORNEO: Mont Kina Balu, 5.8.1903 (John Waterstradt), BM geometrid slide 17345.

Paratypes: 3 as holotype; 2 (slide 16741) BRUNEI: 1618m, Bukit Retak, montane forest, 14.9.1979 (Lt. Col. M.G. Allen); 1 SARAWAK: Gunung Mulu Nat. Park, R.G.S Exped. 1977-8 (J.D. Holloway et al.) Site 14, February, Camp 2.5, G. Mulu, 1000m, 413461, lower montane forest, BM geometrid slide 16743; 1 SABAH: Mt Kinabalu, Power Station, 1930m vii-ix.1965, Cambridge Expedition to Mt. Kinabalu 1965 (H.J. Banks, H.S. Barlow & J.D. Holloway) Brit. Mus. 1968-186, BM geometrid slide 8953.

Taxonomic notes. The type of vagata is a female from Silhet, the genitalia of which are illustrated in Fig 190. Two forms of male genitalia (Figs 170, 171) have been detected in Himalayan material: one with slender eighth tergal processes and a rather bulbous aedeagus vesica with an irregular row of eight cornuti with expanded bases (slide 17346); the other with shorter, more robust tergal processes, a more tubular aedeagus vesica with a rhomboidal array of over twenty cornuti without expanded bases (slide 17352). It is unclear which of these genitalic types should be associated with the vagata female, possibly the latter. Yazaki (1988b) illustrated a female from Peninsular Malaysia with genitalia as in typical vagata, so it may be that members of the vagata group have rather uniform female genitalia (except macrocerata). Yazaki (in litt.) mentioned that P. hainana Chu from Hainan is based on females that also have this form of the genitalia. So there is still a problem in resolution of the identity of these mainland taxa. Paramaxates khasiana Warren stat. n. is based on a male that is conspecific with P. minuscula Yazaki syn. n. A member of the vagata group occurs in Sulawesi (slide 17362) with robust, incurved tergal processes, a broad saccular groove to the valve that is only expressed distal to the flange, terminating in a small spine, and a tubular aedeagus with small cornuti distributed along its length (Fig 174).

Geographical range.

Habitat preference. All material is from montane forest between 1000m and 1930m.

Biology. The first of the two Himalayan species mentioned in the taxonomic notes has been reared in Hong Kong by Miss Choong from Castanopsis (Fagaceae) (A. Galsworthy, pers. comm.).

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